Forest patches in the fragmented agricultural landscapes of West Africa provide key Ecosystem Services and are crucial for local populations well-being. However, these forest patches are under heavy pressure and prone to further degradation. Yet, the forest patches have received little research attention. Thus, it is crucial to generate knowledge about their sustainable management. The SUSTAINFORESTS project analyses the interactive roles of forest patches in the agricultural landscapes of the rainforest and forest zones in Togo, Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon. In addition, it investigates the conditions under which various biophysical, socio-cultural, economic, and institutional factors, including decision-making and land users’ behaviour, interact with and affect forest patches and their sustainable use, management, and governance.